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High levels of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from livestock farms and synanthropic rats and shrews in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam
08/10/18 04:38PM
N. T. Nhung, N. V. Cuong, J Campbell, N. T. Hoa, J. E. Bryant and others. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2014

Abstract: In Mekong Delta farms (Vietnam) antimicrobials are extensively used, but limited data are available on levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Escherichia coli. We performed a structured survey of AMR in E. coli (n=434) from 90 pig, chicken and duck farms. Results were compared with AMR among E. coli (n=234) from 66 small wild animals (rats and shrews) trapped on farms/forests/rice fields. Isolates were susceptibility-tested against eight antimicrobials. E. coli isolates from farmed animals were resistant against (median) 4 [IQR 3-6] antimicrobials, vs. 1 [IQR 1-2] among wild mammal isolates (p<0.001). The prevalence of AMR among farmed species isolates (vs. wild animals) was: tetracycline 84.7% (vs. 25.6%), ampicillin 78.9% (vs. 85.9%), trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole 52.1% (vs. 18.8%), chloramphenicol 39.9% (vs. 22.5%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 36.6% (vs. 34.5%) and ciprofloxacin 24.9% (vs. 7.3%). Prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) (resistance against three or more antimicrobial classes) among pig isolates was 86.7%, compared with 66.9 - 72.7% among poultry isolates. After adjusting for host species, MDR was 8 times greater among isolates from wild mammals trapped on farms than in forests/rice fields (p<0.001). Isolates were assigned to a unique profile representing their combination of susceptibility results. Multivariable analysis of variance indicated that AMR profiles from wild mammals trapped on farms and domestic animals were more alike (R2 range=0.14 - 0.30) compared with E. coli from domestic animals and mammals trapped in the wild (R2 range 0.25 - 0.45). Results strongly suggest that AMR on farms is a key driver of environmental AMR in the Mekong Delta.


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