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Descriptive Results of a Prospective Cohort Study of Avian Influenza in the Mekong River Delta of Viet Nam.
23/03/20 01:42PM
Long V. Nguyen, M. Stevenson, B. Schauer, D. T. Nguyen, Q. D. Tran and others. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 2014, volume 61, number 6, pp. 511-525.
Abstract: A prospective cohort study of avian influenza infection in poultry flocks was carried out in the Mekong River Delta of Viet Nam between December 2008 and April 2010. Our objectives were to (i) estimate the prevalence and incidence of avian influenza virus infection and (ii) assess the efficacy of H5N1 vaccination programmes as indicated by the presence of H5 antibody in vaccinated and unvaccinated poultry. Real-time PCR and H5 multiplex assays were used to detect the antigen of avian influenza viruses from swab samples. The haemagglutination inhibition test was used to detect H5 antibody. A total of 17 968 swab and 14 878 blood samples were collected from 5476 birds over the study period. The overall incidence rate of influenza type A virus infection was 5 (95% CI 4–7) positive birds per 100 bird-months at risk. The overall incidence rate of H5 virus infection was 0.2 (95% CI 0.1–0.5) positive birds per 100 bird-months at risk. Fifty (95% CI 48–52) birds per 100 tested birds were H5 HI positive in the unvaccinated group compared with 71 (95% CI 69–73) birds per 100 in the vaccinated group. Influenza type A and H5 viruses were circulating in village poultry throughout the study period with no recorded signs of clinical disease. This implies that interventions need to be carried out continuously throughout the year rather than only focusing on the established high-risk periods. Broiler ducks had an incidence rate of influenza H5 virus infection approximately four times greater than that of layer ducks and in-contact species. We conclude that broiler ducks are likely to be the main entry route for H5 virus into poultry flocks in the MRD. Control efforts would benefit from understanding why there is a difference between villages in H5 incidence and developing strategies to provide greater protection to broiler ducks. [wiley].
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